PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENT OPTIONS ACTIVE SURVEILLENCE
Prostate cancer progresses very slowly in most patients. Therefore, despite the diagnosis, some patients do not need to be treated. Treatment for prostate cancer may not be recommended for patients whose cancer has not spread to other parts of the body and who have other serious health problems, especially in elderly patients. In this case, the patient is followed at regular intervals and with examinations without treatment; If necessary, treatment is initiated according to the findings during follow-up.
It is a frequently used treatment method in the early stages of prostate cancer. Surgery to remove the entire prostate gland is called ‘Radical Prostatectomy’. It is a viable treatment method especially in stage t1 and t2 tumors, which are thought to be limited to the prostate, if the patient’s life expectancy is over 10 years.
Radical prostatectomy is performed with open or laparoscopic surgical techniques. The main side effects are temporary or permanent urinary incontinence, not enough erection for sexual intercourse in the penis after surgery (erectile dysfunction) and stenosis in the urinary canal in the urethra.
RADIOTHERAPY (BEAM RADIATION) TREATMENT
It is a treatment method that can be applied to different stages of prostate cancer for different purposes. In radiation (ray) treatment, it is aimed to destroy cancer cells with high-energy rays and prevent their growth. In early-stage prostate cancer, radiation therapy can be applied instead of surgery or to destroy any cancer cells that may have remained in that area following surgery. When prostate cancer spreads to other organs, radiotherapy can be applied in these areas and may play a role in relieving the discomfort caused by the cancer. Radiation can be directed into the body with an external machine (external radiation) or a radioactive core can be placed in the prostate (internal radiation brachytherapy) and delivered directly to the cancerous tissue. For some patients, these two radiation treatments can be used together.
Prostate cancer cells need male hormones to grow and multiply. For this reason, reducing the level of male hormone in the blood or preventing the effect of the hormone on the cells has an important place in the treatment of prostate cancer. The drop in hormone levels affects all cancer cells, even if they have spread to other parts of the body. Hormone therapy is a systemic therapy.
LHRH – agonist drugs administered monthly or quarterly as injections (injections) are another form of hormone therapy. LHRH- agonists prevent the testicles from producing male hormone (testosterone). Antiandrogen drugs in tablet form can be used to prevent the effect of this small amount of hormone production.
CANCER TREATMENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY
proliferation of prostate cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body can usually be controlled for a while with hormone therapy. This period can often last for years. However, over time, prostate cancer cells become able to grow in an environment where there is no male hormone. In this case, as hormone therapy will be insufficient, additional treatments may be started by using different drugs. In this period, the physician may also recommend treatment practices that are still in the research phase to the patient.
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